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About Logo

What is Logo?

Logo is an educational programming language, designed in 1967 by Daniel G. Bobrow, Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert
and Cynthia Solomon. Today the language is remembered mainly for its use of "turtle graphics", in which commands for movement and drawing produced line graphics either on screen or with a small robot called a "turtle". (see more on

Seymour Papert from MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory invented TurtleGraphics in the 70s. Find out his description of it:
... "the turtle." You can think of this as a drawing instrument... Imagine that you are looking at a computer screen. On it you see a small turtle, which moves when you type commands in a language called "turtle talk," leaving a line as it goes. The command "Forward 50" causes the turtle to move straight ahead a certain distance. " Forward 100" will make it move in the same direction twice as far. You soon get the idea that the numbers represent the distance it moves; they can be thought of as turtle steps. Now if you want to make it go in a different direction, you give it a command like "Right 90." It stays in the same place but turns on itself, facing east if it had previously been facing north. With this knowledge you should easily be able to make it draw a box. If that's easy for you, you can think about how to draw a circle, and if that's easy you can try a spiral. Somewhere you will meet your level of difficulty, and when you do I'll give you this piece of advice: Put yourself in the place of the turtle. Imagine yourself moving in the outline of a box or a circle or a spiral or whatever it may be.
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Bibliography / Further reading

  •  Logo Foudation
  •  The Logo Turtle by Seymour Papert et al
  •  BFOIT - Introduction to computer programming
  •  Berkeley Logo (UCBLogo) by Brian Harvey
  •  Berkeley Logo Reference Manual
  •  Logo programming - an introduction to Logo by Mike Koss
  •  Logo, fractals and recursion by Eric Dobbs
  •  UT Dallas Computer Science Outreach - LOGO Workshop
  •  Logo 15 Word Contest
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